According to the National Bank of Ukraine, the volume of foreign direct investments   into the economy of Ukraine (balances) (equity instruments and debt instruments) amounted to USD 65,746.8 million as of December 31, 2021.
Investments are channeled to already developed areas of economic activity.
As of December 31, 2021, the largest volumes of direct investments (balances) were channeled to industrial enterprises - 43.7 percent and institutions and organizations engaged in wholesale and retail trade, repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles - 15.5 percent.
The main investor countries include Cyprus - 31.7 percent, the Netherlands - 21.6 percent, Switzerland - 5.8 percent, the Great Britain - 4.6 percent, Germany - 4.6 percent, Austria - 3.0 percent, Luxembourg – 2.4 percent and France – 2.0 percent.
According to the data of the balance of payments published on the website of the National Bank, the net inflow of direct foreign investments in eight months of 2023 is estimated at USD 2.9 billion (including reinvestment of income³ – USD 2.3 billion).
The volume of disbursement of capital investments of Ukrainian enterprises in 2022 amounted to UAH 409,660.0 million.
In 2022, the following spheres of economic activity, in terms of the volume of capital investments, remain leading: industry - 30.8 percent, agriculture, forestry and fishing - 12.6 percent, transport, warehousing, postal and courier activities – 12.1 percent, wholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles - 9.0 percent, public administration and defense; mandatory social insurance – 8.9 percent, construction – 8.0 percent, health care and social assistance – 4.3 percent, information and telecommunications – 4.1 percent, real estate transactions - 3.5 percent.
The own funds of enterprises and organizations, at the expense of which 68.6 percent of capital investments were disbursed in January-December in 2021, remain the main source of financing of capital investments, as before.
The share of bank loans and other loans in the total volume of capital investments was 5.0 percent.
At the expense of the state and local budgets in January-December 2021, 17.6 percent of capital investments were disbursed. The share of funds of foreign investors was
0.1 percent of all capital investments, the share of population funds for housing construction -
5.4 percent. Other sources of financing make up 3.3 percent.
In the conditions of military aggression by the russian federation and the introduction of martial law in the territory of Ukraine in accordance with Decree No. 64 of the President of Ukraine dated February 24, 2022, On the Introduction of Martial Law in Ukraine, the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine and the Government are working, in particular, on restoring the economy, helping Ukrainian entrepreneurs and creating conditions for attracting investments to Ukraine.
In order to stimulate the attraction of strategic investors into the economy of Ukraine, increase Ukraine’s investment attractiveness, create new high-paying jobs, as well as increase the competitiveness of the economy through the introduction of state support for large investment projects, Law of Ukraine On State Support of Investment Projects with Significant Investments in Ukraine was adopted.
On August 9, 2023, the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine adopted Law of Ukraine On Amendments to Certain Legislative Acts of Ukraine Regarding the Implementation of Investment Projects with Significant Investments (hereinafter - the Law), which entered into force.
The main purpose of the Law is to stimulate the attraction of foreign and domestic investments by simplifying the requirements for investment projects with significant investments, improving the forms of state support for the implementation of such projects, which will create favorable conditions for attracting a wider range of investors and increasing the number of investment projects with significant investments, as well as contribute the development of the regions where they will be implemented.
The Law, in particular, amends Law of Ukraine On State Support of Investment Projects with Significant Investments in Ukraine in part of:
expanding the spheres in which an investment project with significant investments may be implemented (the sphere of electronic communications, the production of bioethanol, which is intended for the production as a fuel component, the production of biogas and biomethane, has been added);
providing an opportunity to an applicant no earlier than 18 months before the date of submission of the application to the authorized body to make significant investments in investment objects in an amount not exceeding 30% of the total amount of significant investments required for the implementation of an investment project with significant investments;
enabling the applicant to act as an investor with significant investments, if it is a separate legal entity created for the implementation of an investment project, and a party to a special investment agreement as an investor;
adding forms of state support, namely: compensation at the expense of state, local budgets and other sources, not prohibited by law, of the cost of engineering and transport infrastructure facilities built by the applicant or investor with significant investments (roads, communication lines, heat, gas, water and electricity supply facilities, utility systems, etc.), necessary for the implementation of an investment project with significant investments; compensation for the costs of joining and connection to engineering and transport networks, necessary for the implementation of an investment project with significant investments; exemption from compensation for forestry production losses for the implementation of an investment project with significant investments;
reducing the limit of the amount of significant investments (from EUR 20 million to EUR 12 million) and the number of new jobs created during the implementation period of an investment project with significant investments, namely: the requirements for the creation of jobs to involve in the investment process a larger range of economic entities - not only large, but also medium-sized enterprises - have been changed and differentiated;
identifying of opportunities for finalizing and not returning of documents submitted by the investor, in particular a technical and economic feasibility study and a special investment agreement, as part of the evaluation of the investment project with significant investments, as well as the possibility of conducting negotiations involving representatives of an authorized institution to agree on the provisions of a special investment agreement after receiving an opinion on the feasibility of implementing an investment project with significant investments and concluding a special investment agreement;
providing for the return of state support in full in case of failure to reach the amount of significant investments defined by the draft law (EUR 12 million), the impossibility of increasing the amount of state support when in fact the amount of significant investments is more than that specified in the special investment agreement, as well as the possibility of adjusting the amount of state support, if the actual volume of significant investments is less than provided for in a special investment agreement, by amending such an agreement.
Amendments to the Land Code of Ukraine are also made in terms of adding provisions on exemption from compensation for losses of forestry production of an investor with significant investments to implement an investment project with significant investments.
Another mechanism for attracting investments is industrial parks - potential industrial sites for the relocation of companies from other countries with the aim of diversifying supply chains, which solve the issue of reducing the time before the start of the work (Time-to-Market) of companies, taking into account the time needed to find the optimal location, start of construction and commissioning of facilities.
Law of Ukraine On Industrial Parks provides for a simplified procedure for the lease or ownership of land plots within industrial parks, the durability and stability of economic relations within industrial parks, and the provision of state incentives for the development of registered industrial parks. Such state stimulation may be carried out at the expense of funds from the state and local budgets and from other sources not prohibited by law, as well as by accompanying investors by local and central executive authorities, specialized institutions and organizations in solving issues related to the development of industrial parks.
In addition, on June 21, 2022, the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine adopted Laws of Ukraine On Amending the Tax Code of Ukraine on Creating Favorable Conditions for Attracting Large-Scale Investments in Industrial Production (hereinafter - Law No. 2330) and On Amending the Customs Code of Ukraine on Creating Favorable Conditions for Attracting Large-Scale Investments in Industrial Production (hereinafter - Law No. 2331).
For reference: Law No. 2330 amends the Tax Code of Ukraine, which, in particular, introduces:
- exemption from value added tax on the operation of importation into the customs territory of Ukraine under the customs regime of import of new machinery (equipment) imported by participants of industrial parks, exclusively for their own use to carry out activities in the spheres of processing industry or scientific research activities in the territory of (within) the industrial park (without the right to rent, lease or transfer for use to third parties under any other conditions);
- exemption from income tax for ten years;
- granting the right to local self-government authorities to establish preferential rates of real estate tax and land fees.
Law No. 2331 amends the Customs Code of Ukraine, which, in particular, introduces the exemption from customs taxation of new machinery (equipment) imported by participants of industrial parks exclusively for their own use for their activities in the spheres of processing industry or scientific research activities in the territory of (within) the industrial park (without the right to rent, lease or transfer for use to third parties under any other conditions).
In accordance with the legislation, initiators of creation and management companies of industrial parks may also create small systems of distribution of electric energy of industrial parks.
The creation of small electrical energy distribution systems of industrial parks can significantly simplify and speed up the connection of participants and other subjects of industrial parks to the power supply system.
Despite the objective difficulties associated with the possibility of state stimulation of industrial parks (there is no corresponding funding from the state budget this year), the Government continues to interact with central and local executive authorities, other state authorities and institutions (in particular, State Institution “Office for Investment Attraction and Support”), local self-government authorities, non-governmental organizations, as well as international and foreign partners on the issues of creating conditions for the development of industrial parks in Ukraine.
Thus, based on the results of the joint interaction of local self-government authorities, the Ministry of Economy and the Ministry of Finance, the Government recently amended the Procedure for the Exercise of Powers by the State Treasury Service in a Special Regime under Martial Law, approved by Resolution No. 590 of the CMU dated June 09, 2021.
In accordance with these changes, local self-government authorities may spend local budget funds on preparing design (design and estimate) documentation, new construction, reconstruction, capital repair of engineering and transport infrastructure facilities, necessary for the creation and operation of registered industrial parks located outside their territory.
The Ministry of Economy, supported by the UNIDO technical assistance and with the participation of interested central executive authorities, is forming a policy to promote the introduction of the eco-industrial park model in Ukraine.
In addition, by Order No. 176 of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine dated February 24, 2023, the Strategy for the Development of Industrial Parks for 2023-2030 (hereinafter – the “Strategy”) was approved. The strategy is aimed to help use the potential of industrial parks more effectively as part of the process of decentralization of management and contribute to solving issues related to stopping environmental degradation, creating added value and new qualified jobs.
Another tool is production sharing agreements (hereinafter – the “Agreement”). According to the Agreement, one party, Ukraine, entrusts the other party, the investor, for a specified period of time, with the search, exploration and extraction of minerals in a specified area of the subsoil and conducting works related to the agreement, and the investor undertakes to perform the assigned works at its own expense and at its own risk with the subsequent compensation of expenses and receipt of payment (renumeration) in the form of a part of the profitable products.
Public-private partnership (hereinafter – the “PPP”) is one of the effective tools for attracting additional investments in the state sector of the economy of Ukraine and at the same time is an effective mechanism that promotes the development of relations between state authorities and business. The state guarantees the compliance with the conditions established by the legislation of Ukraine for the conduct of activities of private partners, related to the performance of contracts concluded within the framework of PPP, the compliance with the rights and legitimate interests of private partners.
One of the forms of the implementation of PPP is concession, which provides for granting by the concessor to the concessionaire of the right to create and/or build (new construction, reconstruction, restoration, capital repair and technical re-equipment), and/or manage (use, operation, maintain) the object of concession, and/or provide socially significant services in accordance with the procedure and under the conditions specified by the concession agreement, and also provides for the transfer of the majority of the operational risk, which includes the risk of demand and/or the risk of supply, to the concessionaire.
Despite all the challenges and difficulties brought by the war in Ukraine, the Government of Ukraine is working to create conditions for the effective attraction of domestic and foreign investments in the economy of Ukraine.
Thus, amendments to the budget legislation introduced in 2022 opened a new mechanism for attracting funds for the implementation of projects under PPP conditions, which enables state partners to make long-term commitments within the framework of PPP contracts, and gives private partners (concessionaires) confidence in the state’s fulfillment of its obligations and functioning of the PPP (concession) mechanism.
This is an important step for the implementation of socially significant projects, which are most often implemented according to the PPP model based on the availability of infrastructure with payments for operational readiness.
In addition, the Ministry of Economy of Ukraine is currently working on amendments to some legislative acts to improve the mechanism of attracting private investment through the PPP mechanism to accelerate the restoration of facilities destroyed by the war and the construction of new facilities related to post-war economic recovery of Ukraine.
The main principles of the infrastructure reconstruction strategy in Ukraine (which will be based on innovation, social responsibility) and the main prerequisites for the successful use of PPPs in Ukraine are, in particular:
 The date of the last update is January 13, 2023
 Statistical information on operations, balances and income under direct investment instruments broken down by regions, countries of the world and types of economic activity, starting with data as of March 31, 2022, will be made public after the deadline for submitting statistical and financial reports established by Law of Ukraine dated March 3, 2022 No. 2115-IX On Protection of the Interests of Entities Submitting Reports and Other Documents During the Period of Martial Law or a State of War.